The regional migration context
By the end of 2013, more than 232 million people globally were estimated to be migrants, of which 19 million were estimated to be in Africa. At the same time, some 42.5 million people worldwide were considered to be displaced due to conflicts (36 per cent of which were refugees; 62 per cent were internally displaced persons; and around 2 per cent were individuals whose asylum applications remained to be adjudicated). Of refugees, nearly 2.7 million refugees were in Africa, roughly 25 per cent of the world’s refugee population.1 Indeed, Africa remains a continent with complex migration dynamics. It is generally characterized by dynamic migratory patterns and has a long history of intraregional as well as interregional migration flows. Conflict, income inequalities and environmental change can result in very low levels of human security that act as push factors for migration.